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First Salt Mine in Canada

Peter Murray

The Malagash salt mine is situated in the Malagash Peninsula, Cumberland County, Nova Scotia, which lies between the Northumberland Strait on the north and Tatamagouche Bay on the south. A spur line railway connects the mine with the Canadian National Railway branch line, operating between Oxford Junction and Pictou.


In 1912, Peter Murray, drilling a well for water on his farm on the Malagash road, about seven miles north west of Malagash Station, encountered a strongly saline water and sent a sample of same to Doctor Frank T. Shutt, Dominion Chemist at Ottawa


No action was taken with regard to this discovery until the early months of 1917, when another sample was sent to Doctor Shutt, who reported 26.65 % common salt content. At this time Doctor Shutt referred the parties interested to the Mines Branch, Department of Mines. Steps were at once taken, by the Mines Branch, to obtain another sample for the purpose of having a fuller analysis made. It was found to be strong brine.


In the summer of 1917, A. B. Chambers and George MacKay of New Glasgow, NS, obtained an interest in the property, and drilled a series of holes, after which they sank a shaft in June, 1918. In this shaft, Rock Salt was encountered at a depth of eighty five feet from the face. A diamond drill hole also encountered salt at a depth of ninety four feet below the surface, down to one hundred and seventy three feet.

Check out this video of the mine for the first 3-4 minutes




In 1924 when the partnership of Chambers and MacKay was dissolved as such, they formed Malagash Salt Products Ltd. In 1927 the firm was re-organized as the Malagash Salt Company Ltd., with an authorized capital of 10,000 no par value common shares. It was at this time that the Imperial Chemical Corporation of Great Britain invested $50,000 into the venture in an endeavour to find a workable deposit of potash, which was unfulfilled.


Malagash Salt affords a case history of success attained through perseverance. Deficit followed deficit, and 22 years were to pass before the directors had the gratification of issuing a statement to sharehollders that showed a reasonable profit. At one stage of the company's operation, a majority of the directors wanted to cease operating and wind up the company. MacKay and Chambers held out to continue, and personally borrowed $50,000 from the Bank of Nova Scotia to purchase an equivalent sum to face value of Malagash Salt Bonds.

In the early thirty's the company was often without funds to meet its payroll of over 80 men plus office staff.

The company was reorganized in 1948. Control of the company left New Glasgow in 1951, when the Canadian Salt Company bought, on the open market, all of the common stock. The new owners continued to operate Malagash Salt Company Ltd., as a subsidiary and paid its preferred stock interest regularly.

The deposit at Malagash being nearly exhausted, a new mine was laid out at Pugwash, and shaft sinking began in 1954. The old mine, after 41 years and a production of approximately 2 million tons, was abdoned in March 1959. The new mine at Pugwash went into production in the fall of 1959.

History of Salt in Malagash


Salt springs in Nova Scotia were known by the Micmac Indians long before the advent of the European.

Many exploratory holes were drilled near these springs throughout the province. However, it took Peter Murray, a farmer of North Shore, Malagash, to spark the first true salt industry in the Province.

The men responsible for establishing the industry were A. R. Chambers, (1880-1937) an engineer at Wabana Iron Mines, Bell Island, Newfoundland, and George Walker MacKay (1880 - 1972) of New Glasgow; a McGill Graduate in Civil Engineering.

The existence of salt in the Malagash area of Cumberland County on Nova Scotia's north shore had long been known. Its worth realized by Chambers. In 1917 he convinced George Walker MacKay that a search for salt at Malagash was worth a try. The two formed a partnership and L. Herber Cole (a mining engineer working with the Federal Department of Mines) was brought to Malagash to overseer the diamond drilling. While Chambers remained in the employ of the steel company, MacKay overseered the drilling of test holes. A shaft was sunk, and on Labour Day, 1918, the first salt was hoisted.


Salt in commercial quality and quantity was struck at the very shallow depth of 85 feet and soon they were taking out salt at a rate of 30 to 40 tons a day. Horse wagons freighted the salt to the nearest rail point, eight miles away.

This was Canada's first rock salt mine. Until then all Canadian Salt came from the brine evaporation process. Chambers and MacKay continued as a partnership to develop the salt deposit


The mine was producing from 50,000 to 60,000 tons of salt annually, and had its own 10 mile railway, with the salt hauled out by diesel locomotives. The company also had shipping facilities on Tatamagouche Bay, near the mine site, with a warehouse having a capacity of over 10,000 tons. Here vessels up to 3,500 tons could be accommodated.

Description of the Mine

The Malagash Mine was an intricately folded but seldom broken mass 300 feet thick. In the 300 feet there were three seams (beds) of relatively high purity which conformed one with the other. Two were competent, the Lucas and MacKay, and the other incompetent (Chambers); that is it and its adjoining beds fractured.

One should realize that salt is a plastic the flows under pressure. It will fill any cavity it may encounter under the earth's crust.

Under the provinces of Ontario and Saskatchewan the evaporite beds are undisturbed, that is they are almost perfectly flat lying, and just as they were laid down when ancient seas from which they came evaporated. They are almost as flat as ice on a lake.

However, this is not the case in the Maritimes. When the forces in the earth's crust that caused the Appalachian Mountains to form exerted pressure, all of the many salt deposits began to flow and were highly contorted - and adjoining evaporite beds which were more brittle; chiefly gypsum (plaster) fractured and became dispersed in the relatively plastic salt. At both Malagash and Pugwash gypsum or anhydrite (calcium sulphate) is the chief impurity

The bed that extends to depth in Malagash, the Lucas Seam, could be likened to a crumpled sheet of writing paper, folded and bent but never broken. The thickness of the sheet would represent a salt bed thickness averaging about 12 feet, and the sheet of paper would represent a dimension, one half mile on each side, the whole dipping to the South at an average of 40 degrees.

Actually the dip varied from a flat of 24 degrees to an extreme of 120 degrees when it turned under itself in a 200 foot plunge that made spectacular scenery after the salt was extracted.

Salt was mined from 110 feet below the surface to 1,250 feet below. The travelled distance, at an average of about 40 degrees, was over 2,800 feet. Three hoists were used to get the salt to the surface and someone christened the system "a mechanical bucket brigade".

Everyone working in the Mine at Malagash became a mountain climber. Instead of stairs or ladders (and they were numerous) in many stopes a 3/4 " rope would be hanging and this rope was the sole means of elevating or lowering oneself. Sneakers or running shoes were excellent for clinging to the steep walls, but when hard-toed boots became a safety feature the canvas shoes had to go.

Stairs and ladders were as if from a story book. From &-A level to 11 level, one continuos stair had 220 steps, each step made of a piece of 2 x 6 - 30 inches long. Another stair had 167 steps. One ladder reached almost vertically 200 feet.

A second way in and out of the new slope of the Mine was commenced 900 feet west of the Shaft by engineer James Anderson in 1941. It connected with No. 3 & 5 levels by 1943 and in 1948 it was sunk to join 7-A level.

After 1949 this "New Slope" was used to hoist salt to the pilot plant building where a small rock salt mill had been built.


Just after mid-morning, Tuesday, February 5th, 1957, Ora Scott, who was drilling on the East Limb of the Lucas Seam, East Roll, came through and shouted to the three men working in the stope that made on the West Limb, that he was going to blast.

The men, Carl Reeves, Lloyd Hartling and Lloyd Bennett took shelter in a crosscut about 12 feet long (or deep) in the pillar between the two stopes. The stope where the three men were some years before and the salt made such a sharp turn that the pillar resembled the bow of a huge ship, the Queen Mary, for example. One could see along the port side for 100 yards, but the starboard side had never been developed, and it swung off deceptively, so that the "ship" became wide very quickly. Ora Scott was working on this Eastern or Starboard side and when the shot detonated the shock waves travelled through the pillar, and the whole side of the pillar (ship) slid off and the ship became about eight feet narrower on the port side. I estimated that 2,000 tons of rock salt fell.

Where the three men had taken shelter, the depth suddenly became only four feet and large slabs of rock salt rolled in on them. Lloyd Hartling was killed; Carl Reeves was severely injured (he returned to work almost a year later, on December 30th), and Lloyd Bennett, who was between the other two scarcely received a scratch.

That was the end of salt production at the old mill in Malagash. Indeed, I had believed that spring would be the wind up of Malagash because it had been stated several times that Malagash would cease when Ojibway (located in Ontario) came into production. However, Malagash was to run two years more hoisting on No. 2 slope and using the "Pilot Plant" mill.

Working Conditions

In 1939 it was reported  that ten-hour shifts were worked.  It was reported in 1941 that eight hour shifts were worked six days a week. Actually union records show that an eight-hour day was instituted September 10th, 1940. Nine-hour shifts were worked for a short while prior to this date.

Room and board were provided about 1923.

The cookhouse was the old Peter Murray residence. Mrs. Elizabeth (Langille) Purdy (Pye) was the first to run the business. She provided three a meals a day plus bed for 70c per man and this price maintained for years.

Mrs. William Langille ran the cookhouse 1926-28.

Norman MacBauurie took over in 1928 and in 1929 Mrs. Wallace Carty contracted the business from Mr. MacBurrie and so continued for about six years.

An additional bunk house, which eventually became the first school at the Mine (1937), was built in 1928, when the evaporator plant was being constructed. The building was moved after its stint as a school and used as a change (dry) house, until the Mine closed.


The Salt Mine Workers Union at Malagash is one of the oldest Unions in Nova Scotia. It was formed in 1937.

In 1943 an Agreement was signed by James W. Allen, President and W. L. O' Boyle, Secretary-Treasurer, Theodore Fisher, Recording Secretary and James Chambers and by Louis McCormick of the Canadian Congress of Labour.

A contract effective August 17, 1946, was signed for The Company by J. L. Cavanagh and H. Smedley and signing for the Union was Charles Farrow, President.

Labour rate - 56c/hourHoistman - 65c/hour

Fishery Salt - It had been the intention of the management to sell its salt through the regular channels of distribution, but in the case of fisheries salt the low landed cost of solar salt to large importers and a natural opposition on their part to changing their source of supply made it necessary to sell direct. This may not mean selling direct to fishermen as sales are now made by Malagash to the smaller distributors, who formerly purchased from the importers. However, to obtain a great share of the business, it would be necessary to supply the fisherman who buys on credit from and sells his fish to these same importers.


Refrigerator Salt - This is largely sold direct to consumers although a small volume goes through wholesale channels. However, Verret Stewart, their largest customer, buys direct and resells in the Quebec market. With the exception of Eastern Quebec and the Gaspe Peninsula, Verret Stewart controls sales in that Province and Eastern Ontario.


Evaporated Salt (Coarse) - A certain tonnage will go to the fish trade, but the larger proportion will go to wholesalers in competition with Liverpool Salt and to a lesser extent with own Coarse Salt.


The Malagash Company does not have agents or brokers. The two salesmen can cover the three Provinces satisfactorily, and do so at a cost of approximately 10% of the average selling price of all grades. This should materially decrease as the "missionary" work becomes less.




The Company produces the following classes of salt for the trade-

Fishing Salt Under 5-6 mesh

Refrigerator Salt Through 3 mesh

Coarse Salt Over 3 "

(selected or returned to crusher)


Hay Salt Through 10 mesh

Hide Salt Under 10 mesh

Land Bait Under 8 mesh

(containing potash)


No. 1 Grocery Salt Under 6 mesh selected.


Sardine Salt Under 10 mesh

Chemical Salt Under 5 mesh

Heaving Salt Under 2 mesh

Highway Salt Under 8 mesh

Cattle Licks Large selected lumps

Pan Salt Refined coarse salt


Of the salt mined on a 100% basis, 75% is of good quality. Of this 75% ;


55% is recovered for fishery salt.

20% is recovered for refrigerator salt.

25% waste

Mining the Salt

The Malagash miners recovered the salt by the open stope overhand method - a shaft driven down and stopes run out from the sides, with vertical inclined 'raises' run up from the bottom of the shaft to the floor of the stope. As the salt was drilled and blasted away from the face, the miners would slush it down via the raise to the skip at the bottom of the shaft, whence it was hoisted to the surface.

At the stope face the miners, most of whom were local men, operated their pneumatic drills from "benches" - three or four feet wide ledges cut across the great wall of salt and rocks. The stopes - some were vast enough to hold a cathedral - formed huge glittering caverns where the white and grey walls echoed back the roar of the drills.

On the surface, the skip was dumped onto two picking tables where the rock salt was hand-sorted and fed into the preliminary crusher with a 30 inch by 30 inch opening. From here the crushed salt went to the first set of sizing screens. Various grades of salt moved onto the bagging hoppers, or the bulk hoppers, and so to waiting railway cars.

Tools of Mining

Drills: Early in the life of the Mine, Seraton Electric, (220 Volt D. C.) auger type drills were used to drill holes in the salt to receive explosives.

By the end of World War II, almost all drilling was done by pneumatic drills. A 500 C.F.M. compressor was purchased from Seal Harbour Gold Mines, among other items, early in World War II, and airlines ran into every slope. Plastic pipe revolutionized transporting compressed air into too far off slopes the last years the mine produced.

Undercutters came into prominent use in Scottish coal mines during World War I. An undercutter is a chain saw driven by an electric motor.

The Samson cutter at Malagash came down from Galsgow and soon the Malagash boys mastered the wonderment.

It was not long before the cutters were cutting a face that was standing vertically.

It is not exaggerating to say that the manufactures came to Malagash to see what their machine could do. A Goodman Cutter (Chicago) was purchased later in 1935.

Potential cutter purchasers came from as far away as India to see undercutters work in salt. The stopping system worked this way. The main slope followed a large roll in the Lucas Seam. It would be developed when the need arose, and the new level 5' wide by 7' high would be driven a considerable distance say 1000 feet horizontally, and then a raise 5 feet square would follow the salt up to the old level. Then commencing on the old level 7 foot holes were drilled downward and they blasted salt into the 5 foot square raise and then the broken rock salt was trammed out in two ton cars to the slope to be transferred to the skip, to be hoisted to surface. The 5 foot square raise (chimney) as much as 150 feet long (tall) would become a huge cavity 150 feet high by probably 200 feet laterally, and 10 to 15' thick. Standing at the top of such a cavity with electric lights at the bottom one saw wonderful eerie scenery.



 From 1918 until 1927 when the railway was built to the mine, all salt was moved by horses to Malagash C. N. station.

In winter sleds were used and the spring of the year presented the greatest problem, when heavy wagons sank to the axles. Some of the heavy burlap sacks carried 200 pounds of salt.

In spring when demand for fish salt was greatest, it was common for a wagon to become mired, and the sacks would be unloaded in the mud and manhandled forward and unloaded.

Salesman, Bill Fillmore, recalls that some of the sacks were a mess when the customer received them.

However, this era produced fine draft horses in Malagash, but the horse era passed when the railway was completed for the 1927 business.

Mr. Chambers purchased a Kelly truck; a war unit with chain drive and solid rubber tires. In 1928, the company purchased a 600 net ton Steamer, The Clyde Valley in England.


Customers from the Magdalen Islands, St. Pierre and Newfoundland had their schooners call at Malagash for salt. They varied in size from 60 to 200 tons and brought both bulk and salt in jute sacks. The Red River Boats moved 3,600 ton cargoes up the St. Lawrence to paper mills and the company's vessel, the Clyde Valley lifted 600 tons each trip.



The railroad followed the contour of the fields and many seemingly unnecessary short radius curves plagued traffic on the salt line throughout its life. Derailments were frequent.

All track ties were two-sided, some hewn, some sawn New Brunswick cedar (an excellent wood immune to rot). Many still existed in 1948-50. A boxcar that ran on the main line for years would tip the high rail over easily on these short radius curves.

The best of the steam locomotives for the job was a Mogul 2-6-0. Its low wheels enabled it to move slowly while express engines 4-4-0, with their driving wheels were indeed precarious: one puff would move them several feet.

After the de-icing salt became more important in Ontario in 1948, the rail traffic increased. Some years as high as 500 ties would be purchased. Several cars of ballast and four cars of replacement rails were purchased as well as three new box cars with which to transport salt to the 10,000 ton wharf building 2 1/2 miles distant.

The train crew and the section crew became expert in re-railing loaded boxcars. Empty cars were simple. A steam locomotive de-railed was a real problem. 

The first few trains to move salt were loaded at the Fred Myers crossing. Horses moved the bagged salt to this location while the remainder of the railroad was completed into the Mine.

There was a locomotive with a saddle tank. It did move cars at Malagash, but was used to provide steam for a hoist, lifting salt out of the mine until about 1935.



When in 1926 it was decided to build a railway from Malagash Station into the Mine with a half-mile spur to the wharf, 47 separate deeds had to be written; there were 44 property owners to deal with.

It speaks volumes for the farmers that a 50-foot right of way was purchased through their lands.

The line was 8.23 miles long without the one-half mile spur to the wharf, without the eleven car interchange track near Malagash Station and without about one miles of sidings at the Mine site.

There were two wooden trestles on the road; one over a branch of the Dewar River near Malagash Station and one over Golding Brook near the wharf. Both were 110 feet long and 30 feet above the water at the highest point.

When the rails were taken up in 1959 the land was returned to the current owners.



The skip is automatically dumped at the deck head - half of the load going to each of two grizzlies situated at each side of the shaft. The coarse lump salt passing over the grizzly goes to two steel picking belts, 30" wide by 20' long, where it is hand picked, 2 men to each belt, and a fourth taking the rejected salt to the dump. The remainder going directly to a Jeffrey 30" single roll crusher operated directly from line shaft. The salt passing through the grizzly is passed over a 5 mesh vibrating screen. The salt passing through this screen is used for hay salt or used for brine making. The salt passing over the screen is hand picked and goes direct to the mill circuit joining the salt from the Jeffrey crusher in an elevator. This is elevated to the top of the mill and is passed over two 3 mesh vibrating screens. The oversize goes to a set of Cornish Rolls, 14" x 24", and then returned to the aforementioned elevator. The salt passing through the 3 mesh screens is passed over two 4 mesh screens. The oversize constitutes the product called "3 mesh" or "Refrigerator Salt" and, is fed to an 18" trough conveyor belt which discharges at the bagging platform in the main warehouse.

The salt passing through the 4 mesh screen is passed over Rotex 26 mesh screens to remove the fines which go to the ponds for brine making. The salt passing over the Rotex goes to the 18" trough belt to bagging platform. This is "5 mesh" or "Fishing Salt"


The salt is loaded by hand into small cars holding 1,500 lbs., pushed by hand and dumped into a skip operating on an incline connecting 1st, 2nd, and 3rd. levels. The skip dumps automatically into a pocket above the 130' level. This pocket feeds into a 3 ton car, which is pushed by 3 men to the shaft pocket. (This operation will be carried on by electric locomotive, already on site)

The shaft man fills the main shaft skip, capacity 1.5 tons, from shaft pocket. Each hoist takes a 30 H.P. motor, there being a spare motor available for each hoist.


The present shaft is divided. into 3 compartments, one of which is used for hoisting and, the second available for an additional hoist. The third compartment is an air, emergency ladder, pipe line and cable route, etc. The shaft is 4' x 12' made up from tongue and groove 3" spruce boards, white lead jointed. The air compartment is separated from the hoisting compartments by l ½" tongue ant groove boards. The three compartments are braced internally by 6" x 6" timber and bark filled with clay, and the entire casing supported on a concrete base ring resting right on the salt deposit. There is very little water in the shaft and none in the mine. A 2 ½ H.P D.C. motor connected to a Fairbanks Typhoon duplex reciprocating pump, is placed at bottom of sump and operated only one or two times a week.



The present system of ventilation is obtained by a Sturdevant exhaust fan, approximately 13,000 cu. ft. per minute, belt driven by the mill line shaft. This fan is the primary ventilator and takes care of all the workings with the exception of the forced draft booster fan connecting and placed between the 180' and 230' levels. In addition to these two fans there are three portable, motor driven 5 H.P. blowers, used with Ventube. This latter is a canvas air flue 8" diameter and used for ventilating the working faces.

An appropriation has been obtained in which is included a figure of $3,500.00 to provide a new air shaft in order to further improve the ventilation and provide an exit from the mine in event of emergency.


The Company obtained a lease from the Provincial Government for ten square miles for a period of twenty years and renewable, for which they pay a Royalty of fifteen cents per ton. This property extends a distance of two and a half miles each side of the mine. The Company have acquired outright certain portions for mill workings, employees' accommodations, railway, etc.



Mine Superintendent assisted by General Foremen and two sub-foremen. At present there are a total of eighty men employed and this includes construction gang. The process help varies according to conditions but there are about seventy man employed on production. The average cost of labour throughout is $3.25 per day for ten hours.


Scranton electric drills, capable of drilling a hole 12 ft. long by 1.75 in diameter, are used to drill the salt. The explosive used is "Special Monobel" having a probable base charge of Sodium Carbonate. The blasting is done by time fuse - the holes being made by "Davis" cutter bits. Four drills, operating about 12 hours a day, produce about 180 tons salt per day, including development work. However, one driller on a stope could knock down about 100 tons salt per day.

Mining operations are now being carried out in six working places, two being situated on each of the 180', 230' and 280' levels. During the 24 hour period there are employed in the mine, 5 drillers and 5 helpers, 10 hand loaders for loading salt in cars, 3 tramers, 1 blaster, 1 shaft man and a foreman. The production is approximately 100 tons per day using 1 pound explosive per 1000 pounds of salt.


The building is situated at right angles to the mill building and connected with the two product belt conveyors. The structure is 100' long x 50' wide. On each side of the warehouse there is a railroad siding with loading apparatuses for loading two box cars on each side. The Fishing Salt is loaded on the north side and the refrigerator salt on the south side. The bagging platform is placed so that the bags will run by gravity through hardwood chutes to the ears.

Situated on a level with the bagging platform are two parallel tracks, one on each side, to facilitate storage of bags in the warehouse. By this arrangement the warehouse is able to be filled to track level, which is 10 feet from the floor level of the warehouse. It addition they are able to store another 4 feet high under the roof angle of the building direct from the cars. The total storage capacity of this building is approximately 2,300 tons bulk, or about 30,000 bags of 140 lbs each. The bags used are mainly 100 lb sugar bags turned inside out and stenciled.



The waste salt is dumped from a wheel barrow into one of 5 adjacent ponds, 100,000 gallons each, which are built from a clay bank lined and separated with hardwood. Salt is dumped into No. 1, the fresh water is run in and circulated by an electric driven centrifugal pump, which is placed on the south bank of the pond. The suction is connected with Pond No. 2 and is pumped over the salt in No. 1. When concentration reaches its maximum the brine flows through sluices into No, 3 and 5, which are used for settling, the clear saturated brine runs into No. 4 and pumped by the circulating pump to three wooden storage tanks of about 7,000 gallons each.


This is situated on Tatamagouche Bay which is on the opposite side of Malagash Peninsula to the plant. The dock and landing are owned by the Federal Government and is used as a public landing as well as being used by the salt company without cost. The storage and shipping facilities consist of a warehouse 160' long by 60' wide with sloping sides, having a capacity of about 6,000 tons bulk salt. At the end next to the C.N.R. spur is a bucket elevator, which delivers to a 24" trough conveyor belt running along the peak of the building, by which the building can be filled from the cars. Another conveyor, 36" wide, extends the entire length of the building, through a tunnel underneath centre of building, thence through an inclined conveyor shed to pier head.



Mr. J. H. Gillespie has the position of Office Manager and Accountant, he handles all correspondence and orders under Mr. Chambers' direction, Orders are sent to the Works 60 miles away usually by mail, but very frequent use of the telegraph and telephone is necessary. The two road men Mr. W. L. Fillmore and Mr. C. B. Christian are immediately responsible to Mr. Gillespie although look to Mr. Chambers for instructions.

Both Mr. Fillmore and Mr. Christian are provided with automobiles. The former covers the general trade while Mr. Christian concentrates on the sales of fishery salt also calling on the other buyers in the district he is working. The latter has had many years experience in the fish trade as a buyer for Silver & Company and appears to be thoroughly conversant with that industry.


Fishery Salt - It had been the intention of the management to sell its salt through the regular channels of distribution, but in the case of fisheries salt the low landed cost of solar salt to large importers and a natural opposition on their part to changing their source of supply, made it necessary to sell direct. This may not mean selling direct to fishermen as sales are now made by Malagash to the smaller distributors, who formerly purchased from the importers. However, to obtain a great share of the business, it would be necessary to supply the fisherman who buys on credit from and sells his fish to these same importers.

Refrigerator Salt - This is largely sold direct to consumers although a small volume goes through wholesale channels. However, Verret Stewart, their largest customer, buys direct and resells in the Quebec market. With the exception of Eastern Quebec and the Gaspe Peninsula, Verret Stewart controls sales in that Province and Eastern Ontario.

Evaporated Salt (Coarse) - A certain tonnage will go to the fish trade, but the larger proportion will go to wholesalers in competition with Liverpool Salt and to a lesser extent with own Coarse Salt.

The Malagash Company does not have agents or brokers. The two salesmen can cover the three Provinces satisfactorily, and do so at a cost of approximately 10% of the average selling price of all grades. This should materially decrease as the "missionary" work becomes less.

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